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The original sources of the Prophet’s biography

The original sources of the Prophet’s biography



The most important and most reliable sources from which the material of the biography of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, was derived is the Book of God Almighty, followed in order by the honorable prophetic Sunnah books,

including books of authentic hadiths, books of evidence and references, books of specialized biography and general histories, and these sources are considered original sources in describing the life of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.

May God’s peace and blessings be upon him, his days, walks, battles, and clarification of the lessons and sermons contained therein.

There is no doubt that comprehending these sources when studying the Prophet’s biography gives the most complete picture possible, and it is a clear picture that contains many details [1].

The Holy Quran

The Holy Qur’an is at the forefront of the sources of the Prophet’s biography, in which the verses of rulings of great importance in explaining the Islamic systems and their emergence are mentioned.

They shed light on the social, economic and political legislation under which the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, worked in the administration of the first Islamic state.

And in the Holy Qur’an, he mentioned some historical events in the era of Sirah, such as Badr, Uhud, Al-Khandaq, Hunayn, where it depicts the general conditions and atmosphere in which the invasions and other important events took place, especially the psychological dimensions, which we cannot obtain – with accuracy and truthfulness that are contained in the Holy Qur’an – from Other sources.

We also find in it an accurate depiction of the intellectual and material conflict between Muslims and Jews in the Hijaz, and with the reference of the Holy Qur’an to the past nations, it broadened the historical view of Muslims,

so that their historical studies included the previous prophets and past nations, and by referring to events outside the Arabian Peninsula such as the conflict between the Romans and the Persians, he made them interested in world history so they recorded news Romans, Persians, Turks, Al-Ahbash, and others.

But we should not expect details about historical events in the Holy Qur’an, because it is not a book on history, but rather a constitution for life.


Since the Prophetic Sunnah is the second source of legislation, and it is the one that collected the sayings of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace, his actions, his reports, and his moral and ethical qualities,and given the strong connection between the Sunnah and the Prophet’s biography, we find a large number of books of hadiths concerned with the biography of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace.

May God’s prayers and peace be upon him, “And those who wrote in the Sunnah, their books are often not devoid of mentioning what is related to the life of the Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, his battles, his characteristics, and his virtues…

” Some of the hadith compilations dedicate a section to the Maghazis and biographies, such as Sahih Al-Bukhari .

There is no doubt that the biography in the books of hadith is documented, and it must be relied upon and submitted to the narrations of the books of the Maghazi and general histories, especially if it is mentioned in the authentic hadith books because it is the fruit of tremendous efforts made by the modernists when examining the hadith and criticizing it with a reliable and solid basis.

Historical, but it should be noted that the hadith books – by virtue of their lack of specialization – do not provide details of the enigmas and the events of the biography.

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Books of evidence of prophecy and merits

By books of evidence of prophecy, we mean the special works that deal with miracles and evidence that show the truthfulness of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace.

Although the books of hadith included chapters on the signs, signs, and evidences of prophecy (2) and the characteristics of the Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him,

but the oldest of them was Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Fariabi (d. 212 AH), and he is a trustworthy modernizer proven in his book (Directions of Prophecy), then modern scholars followed him They singled out the evidence of the Prophethood with special works, including Ibn Mandah, Ibn Abi Hatim and others.

Al-Bayhaqi’s Book of Proofs of Prophecy (d. 458 AH) was well-known. It is a printed book, and it includes authentic and good hadiths, as well as weak and fabricated hadiths. Al-Hafiz al-Dhahabi praised this book[2].

Also included in this category are the books of the characteristics of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, which deal with the biography, evidence and characteristics.

He wrote many characteristics, most notably: the book (The Characteristics of the Best Creatures) by Ibn Al-Mulqen, and the book (The Great Characteristics) by Jalal Al-Din Al-Suyuti.

The Achammail wrote deals with the ethics and etiquette of the qualities of the Prophet peace be upon him, and the oldest of Oferdha:

Abu Albchtera Wahab bin Wahab al – Asadi in his “status of the Prophet,” and is best known book of Imam Tirmidhi in the book ( the merits of the Prophet and characteristics Almstefoah), then the book of Abu Sheikh Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Hayyan Al-Asbahani, entitled (The Morals and Ethics of the Prophet) – both of which are printed.

Then came the book (Al-Shifa by Defining the Rights of the Mustafa) by Judge Ayyad, and it is a comprehensive book, so it received a suitable service in its stature among scholars.

Specialized biography of the Prophet

The books specialized in the subject of the Prophet’s biography follow in terms of accuracy the Noble Qur’an and the Noble Hadith, and what gives them great scientific value is that the first of them were written at a very early age, specifically in the generation of the followers where the Companions were present.

And the Companions had accurate and extensive knowledge of the biography because they lived through its events and participated in them, and their love for the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace,

their attachment to him and their desire to follow him and their adoption of his Sunnah in rulings was a reason for spreading the news of the biography and their memoirs in it and their preservation of it, it is the practical application of the teachings of Islam.

A number of the Companions were famous for their great interest in the subject of biography, including Abdullah bin Abbas , Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas and Al-Bara bin Azib [3].

The early writing of the biography greatly reduced the possibility of its exposure to distortion, exaggeration, exaggeration, or loss.

Several recent studies have been written about the pioneers of biography writing among the followers and those who followed them (2), but they were not concerned with explaining their condition of injury and modification, and their writings were not based on a modern angle and according to the rules of the term hadith, and they are:

– Aban bin Othman bin Affan (d. 101 – 105 AH), and he is a trustworthy hadith on the authority of the followers Urwa bin Al-Zubayr bin Al-Awwam (d. 94 AH), a trustworthy hadith of the followers, and after one of the seven famous jurists in Medina.

– Amer bin Sharaheel al-Shaabi (died 103 AH).

He is a trustworthy modernizer of his book Al-Maghazi. – Essam bin Omar bin Qatada (died 119 AH), who is a trustworthy hadith.

– Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d. 124 AH), one of the greatest hadith scholars of his time. And others created many.

The Book of Musa bin Uqba

Musa bin Uqba (d. 140 AH), a trustworthy scholar of Al-Zuhri’s students, and Imam Malik praised his book on Maghazi and said: It is the most correct of Maghazi.

Yahya Ibn Mu’in said: “The book of Musa bin Uqbah on the authority of al-Zuhri is one of the most authentic of these books.” Imam al-Shafi’i said : “There is nothing in al-Maghazi more sound than the book of Musa bin Uqbah, even though it was small and devoid of what is mentioned most in other books.

And Golden said : “As for the Maghazi Musa bin obstacle they are in the folder are not significant, and we’ve heard mostly good and true sender, but a brief statement of need to increase the sequel.”

The Biography of the Prophet by Ibn Ishaq

And its author is Muhammad ibn Ishaq (d. 151 AH), one of the students of al-Zuhri, an imam in al-Maghazi, but his narrations do not rise to the level of al-Saheeh, but al-Hasan, on the condition that he declares the modernization because it is fraudulent, his biography of al-Hasan and the weak together.

Ibn Uday said, “I searched hadiths, but I did not find in his hadiths that he was ready to conclusively say that he was weak, and perhaps he erred or mattered, as others err, and trustworthy and imams did not leave behind in the narration from him, and there is nothing wrong with him.

Dr. Akram Zia said: «This certificate is of great importance not to the status of son Uday and rigor in the documentation only, but because they are based on sounding novels and not on the transfer of the sayings of the critics old only that revolves around accusing son of Isaac to the extent and Shiism, fraud and Baltsahev» [4] .

Al-Dhahabi said: “One of the vessels of knowledge was inked in the knowledge of conspiracies and biographies, and he was not that well-versed, so his talk about the rank of health has deteriorated, and he is honest in himself and satisfactory.”

The biography was narrated on the authority of Ibn Ishaq by a large group of them, Yazad bin Abdullah Al-Baka’i – and from his path it was narrated by Ibn Hisham – and Bakr bin Suleiman – and from his path it was narrated by Khalifa bin Khayat in History – and Salama bin Al-Fadl Al-Abrash – and in it Al-Tabari says :

“It is not from Baghdad until that It reaches Khurasan. It is proven in Ibn Ishaq by Salamah Ibn al-Fadl.

As for Muhammad bin Omar al-Waqidi (d. 207 AH), one of the narrators of the biography of Ibn Ishaq, he is weak among the hadithers with the abundance of his scientific material.

He owned a large library containing six hundred books, and it took twenty and one hundred qar to transfer them from Karkh to Rusafa.

And he was not limited to what is in the books, but rather traced the locations of the historical events and described them, and his narrations are not suitable for invoking them in relation to the creed and the Shari’a, but they are useful in describing the details of the events that are not related to the creed and the Shari’a, especially if they do not contradict the correct news.

The scholars and critics differed in accepting and rejecting his narratives:

Ibn Hajar ruled on him that he was abandoned, according to Ibn Mu’in, Ibn Hibban and others, but he added:

If he does not contradict the authentic news, nor does anyone else from the people of Maghazi, then it is acceptable to our companions.”

Al-Dhahabi chose that: he collected and conscious, and mixed the wheat with the fat, and the beads with the precious pearl.

As for Ibn Katheer , he relied on it and said: “Al-Waqidi has good additions and a written history often, for he is one of the great imams of this matter, and he is truthful in himself and abundantly.”

What appears in his case is that his additions in the Maghazi and Siren did not contradict the authentic narrations, so it is acceptable.

All the works mentioned by the early pioneer scholars were good and narrated with chains of transmission and presented on the rules of modernization, and this is from God Almighty preserved the life of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and his Sunnahs from being lost, and he protected them from being plagiarized by tampers, storytellers and historians.

However, these primary sources are mostly lost today, but the following sources that reached us relied on their works and quoted them a lot with chains of transmission.In the biography and models that.

Ibn Hisham’s biography

A refinement of the biography of Ibn Ishaq, where Ibn Hisham deleted from it many of the plagiarized poems and added to them information in language and genealogy, which made it – after the refinement – gain the approval of the majority of scholars.

The truth is that the picture that he gives about the life of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace, is very close to what was reported in the authentic books of hadith, which gives his biography a great documentation.

He explained the biography of Ibn Hisham Al-Hafiz Al-Suhaili (d. 581 AH) in his book “Al-Rawd Al-Anf” which is printed.

– Including (The Great Layers) of Muhammad bin Saad (d. 230 AH), where he dedicated the first two volumes of his book to the biography, and Ibn Saad is a trustworthy researcher in many of his narrations, as Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi and Al-Asqalani say.

– (History of Khalifa bin Khayat), who died in 240 A.H., and he is a trusted modernist from the sheikhs of Imam Al-Bukhari in “Al-Sahih”, and his book is a general history that dealt at the beginning with the events of the biography briefly, relying on Ibn Ishaq in the first place.

– (The History of the Messengers and Kings) by Muhammad bin Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310 AH), where he devoted a portion of his history to the biography and al-Tabari trust and relied on Ibn Ishaq in the first place.

Al-Durar fi Abbreviating Al-Maghazi and Al-Sir) by Ibn Abd al-Barr al-Qurtubi (d. 463 AH), and he is one of the most prominent modernists of his time.

He relied on the biography of Ibn Ishaq, the biography of Musa bin Uqbah, and the history of Ibn Abi Khaithamah, in addition to the books of hadith.

– Among what is mentioned in this section: Al-Kamil fi Al-Tarikh by Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Bidaya and Al-Niha by Ibn Kathir, Zad Al-Ma’ad by Ibn Al-Qayyim and others.

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